detection of Colorectal Cancer
who are at risk (described above) of developing colorectal
cancer are asked by doctors to take certain tests routinely for
early detection of cancer -
digital rectal exam (DRE) by the doctor
fecal occult blood test is a test used to check for
minute quantity of blood in the stool occurring due to a
polyp or early cancer.
colonoscopy is an examination of the rectum and entire colon
using a lighted instrument called a colonoscope.
double contrast barium enema (DCBE)- The patient is given an
enema with a solution that contains barium, which outlines
the colon and rectum on the x-rays.
of Colorectal Cancer
following tests are useful for diagnosing colorectal cancer:
contrast barium enema
sigmoidoscopy and or colonoscopy along with a biopsy from
suspicious area -A biopsy is the removal of a tissue sample
for examination under a microscope by a pathologist to make
resection of the cancer is the primary treatment of Colorectal
cancer and the adjuvant therapy depends on the stage of the
0 Colon Cancer (Carcinoma in Situ)- A local excision or
simple polypectomy of a carcinoma in situ in a polyp.
Resection/anastomosis. This is done when the cancerous
tissue is too large to remove by local excision.
I Colon Cancer - Treatment of stage I colon cancer is
usually resection and anastomosis.
II Colon Cancer - Treatment of stage II colon cancer may
include the following: Resection and anastomosis
followed by chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or biologic
III Colon Cancer - Treatment of stage III colon cancer may
include the following: Resection/anastomosis with
chemotherapy with radiation therapy and or biologic therapy.
regimes usually includes either a combination of
(1) Fluorouracil, leucovorin, and levamisole
or (2) Irinotecan and oxaliplatin.
Patients with newly diagnosed metastatic colon cancer who
received the therapeutic agent bevacizumab (Avastin)
along with the chemotherapy combination known as IFL ((irinotecan,
had substantially improved the survival. Bevacizumab is an anti-angiogenesis
agent that inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF).