Cancer Information

Signs and symptoms - colorectal cancer

  • Altered bowel habits

  • Diarrhea or constipation or alternating diarrhea and constipation, or feeling of incomplete evacuation of bowel.

  • Blood in the stool

  • Vomiting

  • General abdominal discomfort like bloating, fullness, or abdominal pain and cramps)

  • Weight loss with no known reason

  • Constant tiredness

These symptoms can also be caused by other conditions therefore it  is important to check with a doctor.

Staging of Colorectal Cancer -

 If the diagnosis is cancer, the doctor needs to learn the stage (or extent) of disease. Staging is a careful attempt to find out whether the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.

TNM classification and AJCC staging -

Primary tumor (T)

  • TX: Primary tumor cannot be assessed

  • T0: No evidence of primary tumor

  • Tis: Carcinoma in situ: intraepithelial or invasion of the lamina propria

  • T1: Tumor invades submucosa

  • T2: Tumor invades muscularis propria

  • T3: Tumor invades through the muscularis propria into the subserosa, or into nonperitonealized pericolic or perirectal tissues

  • T4: Tumor directly invades other organs or structures, and/or perforates visceral peritoneum

AJCC staging

Regional lymph nodes (N)

  • NX: Regional nodes cannot be assessed

  • N0: No regional lymph node metastasis

  • N1: Metastasis in 1 to 3 regional lymph nodes

  • N2: Metastasis in 4 or more regional lymph nodes

Distant metastasis (M)

  • MX: Distant metastasis cannot be assessed

  • M0: No distant metastasis

  • M1: Distant metastasis





  • Stage 0 - Tis, N0, M0

  • Stage I - T1, N0, M0 ; T2, N0, M0

  • Stage IIA -T3, N0, M0

  • Stage IIB - T4, N0, M0


  • Stage IIIA - T1, N1, M0, T2, N1, M0

  • Stage IIIB - T3, N1, M0 ; T4, N1, M0

  • Stage IIIC -  Any T, N2, M0

  • Stage IV - Any T, Any N, M1