Bladder Cancer 

Prostate Cancer

Colorectal Cancer

Endometrial Cancer

Head and Neck Cancer 

Breast Cancer 

Lung Cancer   


Ovarian Cancer 

Hodgkins Lymphoma

Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma


Occupation related Cancers


Common Childhood Cancers  

Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia


Wilm's Tumor



Cancer Information


Recent years have seen a major revolution in molecular biology, genetics, cytology and medicine. Many novel treatment strategies have emerged for treatment of cancer. There have been obvious triumphs, for instance in cure of acute lymphocytic leukemia and other childhood cancers, Hodgkin's disease, and testicular cancer. However, substantial advances in molecular oncology have yet to substantially alter the mortality statistics. 

What is Cancer?

Cancer is a group of many related diseases. All cancers begin in cells inside the body. Cells are the body's basic unit of life. All the tissues and organs inside body are made up of cells. Under normal conditions, cells grow and divide to form new cells as the body needs them. When a cell grows old it dies and new cells take their place. If this orderly process goes wrong, then new cells form when the body does not need them, and old cells do not die when they should. These extra cells can form a mass of tissue called a growth or tumor.
Tumors can be benign or malignant. Malignant tumors are cancer. Cancer cells can invade and damage nearby tissues and organs. Also, cancer cells can break away from a malignant tumor and enter the bloodstream or the lymphatic system. That is how cancer cells spread from the original (primary) tumor to form new tumors in other organs. The spread of cancer is called metastasis.

Tumors are overgrowths, clones within clones, of cells bearing cumulative genetic injuries which each confer growth advantages over their neighbors ("NOWELL'S LAW"). Tumor cells typically have failure of division control, failure of senescence ("immortalization"), and failure of proper apoptosis (programmed cell death). By the time a tumor is visible, the changes have been underway for a long time (at least months, usually years).

Factors associated with cancer - About 50 of the nearly 120 of the known cancer have been so far found to have some kind of genetic predisposition. But there are number of chemical, physical and environmental factors which have been found to be associated with cancer-

    Soot: Cancer of the scrotum ("chimney sweep's cancer")

    Polycyclic hydrocarbons ( e.g. 3-methylcholanthrene, benz(a)anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene) -Tobacco smoking-related cancers (lung, larynx, mouth, throat, esophagus, pancreas, bladder, kidney.

    Azo dyes: Bladder cancer (dye factory workers,  Azo dye workers still have a tremendous increase in urothelial cancer. Certain other dyes  used as food additives may also have carcinogenic properties.

    Aflatoxin: Eating moldy grain and peanuts (hepatocellular carcinoma, endemic in Africa; the mold is aspergillus species)

    Betel nut: Mouth and throat cancer (common in Indian subcontinent)

    Mat : Uruguayan herbal concoction; with black tobacco,can cause bladder cancer.

    Pickled fish and vegetables: Chinese nasopharyngeal cancer and esophageal cancer.

    Safrole: Sassafras (stomach cancer, liver cancer, probably causes other cancers too. )

    Vinyl chloride: Angiosarcoma of the liver (factory workers)

    Chromium, nickel: Lung cancer

    Cadmium: Lung cancer (strong link) and prostate cancer ( seen in battery factory workers)

    Asbestos: Lung cancer, mesothelioma.

    Silica / Sand: Lung cancer.

    Arsenic: Arsenic given was famous for causing skin cancers; high concentrations in drinking water can probably also cause bladder cancer.

    PCB's: Polychlorinated biphenyls (pollutants, can probably lead to certain cancers).

    Saccharin and Cyclamates: Bladder cancer

    Benzene: Leukemias

    Phenacetin: Transitional epithelial (mostly bladder) cancers

    Anabolic steroids: Liver cancer

    Estrogen: Endometrial hyperplasias and carcinomas

    Drugs used for Cancer chemotherapy: Certain drugs used for treating cancers can give rise to Acute leukemia (they  include cyclophosphamide, chlorambucil, busulfan, melphalan, others -- the alkylating agents)

    Cyclophosphamide: Transitional epithelial (mostly bladder) cancers

    Other alkylaters: Many cancers (nitrogen mustard, bischloromethyl ether, benzyl chloride)

    Ferric ion: Liver cancer (hemochromatosis patients)

    Herbicides: Chlorophenol herbicides occasionally show small statistical links to soft tissue sarcomas.