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The term Upanishad is derived from upa (near), ni (down) and s(h)ad (to sit). In ancient Indian teaching system groups of pupils sit near the teacher to learn from him the secret doctrine. Upanishad means brahma-knowledge by which ignorance is loosened or destroyed. In the Upanishads the spiritual meanings of the Vedic texts are brought out and emphasized in their own right. The Upanishads more clearly set forth the prime Vedic doctrines. The Upanishads constitute what we call the Vedanta (Veda-anta), the end of the Vedas, not merely because they constitute the last part of them, but above all because they are their ultimate teachings, reaching to the highest metaphysical state.

The older Upanishads are usually affixed to a particularly Veda, through a Brahmana or Aranyaka.

Some 350 Upnanishads are known to exist but traditionally 108 Upanishads contained in the Muktikopanishad are considered most important.

Read and download the following Upanishads

 (1) Isha Vasya Upanishad (English HTML) (English Pdf) (Sanskrit Pdf)

(2) Katha Upanishad (English HTML) (English Pdf) (Sanskrit Pdf) 

(3) Kena Upanishad (English HTML) (English Pdf) (Sanskrit Pdf)

(4) Maitrayani (English HTML) (English Pdf) (Sanskrit pdf)

Download all 108 Upanishads (Sanskrit)


Aitareya Upanishad
Atmabodha Upanishad
Kaushitaki Upanishad
Mudgala Upanishad
Nirvana Upanishad
Nadabindu Upanishad
Akshamalika Upanishad
Tripura Upanishad
Bahvricha Upanishad
Saubhagyalakshmi Upanishad


Katha Upanishad
Taittiriya Upanishad
Ishavasya Upanishad
Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
Akshi Upanishad
Ekakshara Upanishad
Garbha Upanishad
Pranagnihotra Upanishad
Svetasvatara Upanishad
Sariraka Upanishad
Sukarahasya Upanishad
Skanda Upanishad
Sarvasara Upanishad
Adhyatma Upanishad
Niralamba Upanishad
Paingala Upanishad
Mantrika Upanishad
Muktika Upanishad
Subala Upanishad
Avadhuta Upanishad
Katharudra Upanishad
Brahma Upanishad
Jabala Upanishad
Turiyatita Upanishad
Paramahamsa Upanishad
Bhikshuka Upanishad
Yajnavalkya Upanishad
Satyayani Upanishad
Amritanada Upanishad
Amritabindu Upanishad
Kshurika Upanishad
Tejobindu Upanishad
Dhyanabindu Upanishad
Brahmavidya Upanishad
Yogakundali Upanishad
Yogatattva Upanishad
Yogasikha Upanishad
Varaha Upanishad
Advayataraka Upanishad
Trisikhibrahmana Upanishad
Mandalabrahmana Upanishad
Hansa Upanishad
Kalisantaraa Upanishad
Mahanarayana Upanishad
Tarasara Upanishad
Kalagnirudra Upanishad
Dakshinamurti Upanishad
Pancabrahma Upanishad
Rudrahrdaya Upanishad
Sarasvatirahasya Upanishad

SamaVeda: (16)

Kena Upanishad
Chandogya Upanishad
Maha Upanishad
Maitrayani Upanishad
Vajrasuci Upanishad
Savitri Upanishad
Aruneya Upanishad
Kundika Upanishad
Maitreyi Upanishad
Sanyasa Upanishad
Jabaladarsana Upanishad
Yogachudamani Upanishad
Avyakta Upanishad
Vasudeva Upanishad
Jabali Upanishad
Rudrakshajabala Upanishad


Prasna Upanishad
Mandukya Upanishad
Mundaka Upanishad
Atma Upanishad
Surya Upanishad
Narada-Parivrajakas Upanishad
Parabrahma Upanishad
Paramahamsa-Parivrajakas Upanishad
Pasupatha-Brahma Upanishad
Mahavakya Upanishad
Sandilya Upanishad
Krishna Upanishad
Garuda Upanishad
Gopalatapani Upanishad
Tripadavibhuti-mahnarayana Upanishad
Dattatreya Upanishad
Kaivalya Upanishad
Narsinhatapini Upanishad
Ramatapani Upanishad
Ramarahasya Upanishad
Hayagriva Upanishad
Atharvasikha Upanishad
Atharvasira Upanishad
Ganapati Upanishad
Brihajjabala Upanishad
Bhasmajabala Upanishad
Sarabha Upanishad
Annapurna Upanishad
Devi Upanishad
Bhava Upanishad
Sita Upanishad