Cancer Information

Signs and Symptoms of Prostate Cancer

Most cases of prostate cancer are usually discovered during a routine digital rectal examination (DRE). Symptoms are often similar to those of benign prostatic hyperplasia and include-

  • Blood in the urine or semen

  • Frequent urination, especially at night

  • Inability to urinate

  • Nagging pain or stiffness in the back, hips, upper thighs, or pelvis

  • Painful ejaculation

  • Pain or burning during urination (dysuria)

  • Weak or interrupted urinary flow

Staging of Prostate Cancer: TNM System - The TNM (tumor, node, metastases)

 Primary tumor (T):

  • TX  Tumor cannot be assessed

  •  T0  No evidence of primary tumor

  •  T1  Clinically not palpable or visible by imaging

  •  T1a  Found incidental to other surgery; present in 5% or less of tissue 

  • T1b  Found incidental to other surgery; present in 5% or more of tissue 

  • T1c  Identified by needle biopsy 

  • T2  Tumor confined within prostate 

  • T2a  Involving half a lobe or less of prostate 

  • T2b  Involving half a lobe 

  • T2c  Involving both lobes 

  • T3  Tumor extends through prostate capsule 

  • T3a  Extends through one lobe 

  • T3b  Extends through both lobes 

  • T3c  Extends into seminal vesicles 

  • T4  Involves structures other than seminal vesicles 

  • T4a  Invades bladder neck, external sphincter, or rectum 

  • T4b  Invades muscles and/or pelvic wall 

Regional Lymph Nodes (N):

  • NX  Nodes cannot be assessed 

  • N0  No regional node metastasis 

  • N1  Single node metastasis, 2 centimeters (cm) or less at largest point

  • N2  Single node metastasis, 2 cm to 5 cm at largest point, or multiple nodes, no larger than 5 cm at largest point 

  • N3  Metastasis larger than 5 cm in any node 

Distant Metastasis (M) :

  • MX  Metastasis cannot be assessed 

  • M0  No distant metastasis 

  • M1  Distant metastasis 

  • M1a  Distant lymph node(s) involved 

  • M1b  Bone(s) involved 

  • M1c  Other site(s) involved