of Lung Cancer
Medical history, smoking history, exposure to
environmental and occupational substances, and family history
cytology (the microscopic examination of cells obtained from
a deep-cough sample of mucus in the lungs)
biopsy or needle aspiration - Removal of a small piece of
disease tissue for microscopic examination can be done to
confirm the diagnosis
tests like CT scan, MRI and bronchoscopy, Radionuclide
scanning Bone scan and mediastinoscopy may be used to
determine the extent of disease.
Type of surgery to remove the cancer depends on the location
and extent of the cancer in the lung. Surgery is of limited
value and only a small minority of limited stage patients with
adequate pulmonary function and with tumor pathologically
confined to the lung of origin, or the lung and ipsilateral
hilar lymph nodes, may possibly benefit from surgical resection
with or without adjuvant chemotherapy
- is the use of anticancer drugs to kill cancer cells
throughout the body. In patients with limited stage small cell
lung cancer, combination chemotherapy produces results that are
clearly superior to single-agent treatment. Combinations
containing 2 or more drugs are needed for maximal effect. A
common combination is to use etoposide and cisplatin together.
therapy - involves the use of high-energy rays to kill
cancer cells. A minimal tumor doses in the range of 4,000 to
4,500 cGy or more are usually needed to effectively control
tumors in the thorax.
combination of Radiation therapy and Chemotherapy has
been found to be more beneficial in some trials but whether
these therapies are used alone or in combination depends on the
severity of the disease and also varies from center to center.