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The Muslim Period in Indian History

Early Muslim Invasions

The Slave Dynasty

The Khilji Dynasty

The Tughlaq Dynasty

The Saiyyid

The Lodhi dynasty

Mughal dynasty

Medieval History in South of India

Vijaynagar Kingdom

The Nizam Shahi Dynasty of Ahmadnagar

The Adil Shahi Shahi Dynasty of Bijapur

The Qutab Shahi Shahi Dynasty of Golkanda

Bahamani Kingdom of Deccan

The Imad Shahi Dynasty of Berar

The Barid Shahi Dynasty of Bidar

Policy of Muslim rulers in India

There were many causes for Muslim conquest but the major reason was the spread of Islam.  The Muslim dominated Kabul, the Punjab, and Sind, before intruding in to India. The wealth in India lured the Muslim rulers. Further the inter-rivalry between the kingdoms in India paved the way for their entry in to India.

Early Muslim Invasions

The very first Muslim attack on India in Sindh in the year 715 A.D was by Arabs led by Mohammad Bin Qasim. They displaced Raja Dahir who ruled Sindh from his capital Deval (near modern Karachi). Arabs even unsuccessfully tried to attack Malwa. After this invasion, which was limited to Sindh, for a period of 300 years, kings like Raja Bhoja and other Gurjara Kings thwarted further Muslim attacks. The next invasion was by Turk Sabuktagin. He had established himself in Khorasan and extended his kingdom to Kabul and Ghazni. In 986 AD he came into conflict with Raja Jaipal of Bathinda. In 991 A.D. Raja Jaipal allied with other Hindu king including Rajyapala the Prathira king of Kannauj and Dhanga the ruler of the distant Chandela kingdom but they too were defeated.

Mahmud of Ghazni : The elder son of Sabuktagin, Mahmud of Ghazni assumed the throne in 997 AD. He was very conscious of the wealth he could achieve from further conquests into India. He was also a religious fanatic who aimed to spread Islam. Mahmud is said to have invaded India seventeen times between 1001 -1027 AD. King Jaipal and later his son Anandpal resisted Mahmud but were defeated. Between 1009 A.D and 1026 A.D he invaded Kangra, Thaneshwar, Kanauj, Mathura, Gwalior, Kashmir and Punjab. In 1025 A.D Mahmud invaded Somnath and looted its temple on the coast of Saurashtra or Kathiwar. Enormous treasure of the fortified temple was looted. His last invasion was in about 1027 AD. He died in 1030 AD.

Mohammad Ghori : The next important Muslim ruler who had made his influence in Indian history known was Muhammad Ghori. Muhammad Ghori is said to have invaded India seven times. Mohammad Ghori invaded Multan in about 1175-76AD.  In 1178 A.D he attempted the conquest of Gujarat. He was strongly resisted by Bhimdev II who inflicted a crushing defeat on him. In 1191 AD Mohammad Ghori met Prithvi Raj Chauhan in the first battle of Tarain. Mohammad Ghori was severely wounded and outnumbered. He was defeated and left the battlefield. In the very next year in 1192 AD both the armies met again at Tarain. This time Mohammad defeated Prithvi Raj Chauhan. In 1194 AD Mohammad Ghori invaded defeated and killed the ruler of Kannauj Jaichand and also captured Benares. Gwallior, Gujarat and Ajmer were also occupied by 1197 AD. Mohammad Ghori died in 1206AD.

The Slave Dynasty

Mohammad Ghori had left Qutab-ud-din Aibek who was a slave from Turkistan in charge of the Indian affairs. Qutab-ud-din's general Muhammad Khilji successfully plundered and conquered the fort of Bihar in 1193 AD. In about 1199-1202AD Muhammad Khilji brought Bengal under his authority. Qutab-ud-din died in 1210AD. He had laid the foundation of a new dynasty called the Slave dynasty in 1206AD. In 1211 A.D. Iltumish (son in law of Qutub-ud-din) ascended the throne. He spent his days in retrieving the lost territories of Qutab-ud-din, and also added Malwa and Sind. He defeated Rajput rulers of Ranthambor, Ajmer, Jalor, Nagor, Gwalior. Kannauj, Banaras and Badaun were under his dominion. During his period Qutab Minar in Delhi was completed.

 Iltutmish's daughter Razia Begum came to power 1236 AD after a brief power struggle and ruled till 1240 AD when she was killed. Nasir-uddin Mahmud the youngest son of Iltumish came into power after another power struggle. He ruled for twenty-five years. The affairs of the state were left to his father-in-law and minister Ulugh Khan Balban. After the death of Nasir-ud-din Mahmud in 1226 AD the power was taken over by Balban who was an able administrator. He maintained a strict attitude towards the Hindus and kept them under strong suppression with the help of his military power. He was one of the greatest military rulers of the Slave dynasty. Balban died in 1287 AD.

The Khilji Dynasty

Following the death of Balban the Sultanate became weak and there were number of revolts. This was the period when the nobles placed Jalaluddin Khilji on the throne. This marked the beginning of Khilji dynasty. The rule of this dynasty started in 1290 AD. Alauddin Khilji a nephew of Jalaluddin Khilji hatched a conspiracy and got Sultan Jala-lud din killed and proclaimed himself as the Sultan in 1296. In 1297 AD Alauddin Khilji set off for conquering Gujarat. In 1301 A.D. Ramthambhor was captured and the Rajput Hamir Deva was murdered. In 1303 A.D. he conquered Chittor killing Rana Rattan Singh. His queen Rani Padmini with the other women committed Jauhar. In 1305 A.D. Alauddin Khilji captured Malwa, Ujjain, Mandu, Dhar and Chanderi but failed to capture Bengal.  By 1311 A.D. he captured nearly the whole of North India. His General Malik Kafur captured a large part of south India.  During his reign Mongols invaded the country several times but were successfully repulsed. From these invasion Allauddin Khilji learnt the lessons of keeping himself prepared, by fortifying and organizing his armed forces.  Allaudin Khilji died in 1316 A.D.

 There was lot of infighting after Alauddin Khiljis death and Mubarak Khan the third son of Alauddin Khilji ascended the throne as Qutb-ud-din Mubarak in the year 1316 AD. The rule of Qutb-ud-din Mubarak was an utter failure. Ultimately Qutb-ud-din Mubarak was murdered by Khusru Khan and Khilji dynasty ended.

The Tughlaq Dynasty

In 1320, Ghazi Tughlaq, the governor of the northwestern provinces took the throne under the title Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq after killing Khusru Khan. In 1325 the Sultan met an accidental death and was succeeded by his son Muhammad bin Tughlaq. During his reign, the territorial expansion of Delhi Sultanate reached its farthest limits. His empire covered the regions from Peshawar in the north and Madurai in the South, and from Sindh in the west to Assam in the east. The capital was transferred from Delhi to Devagiri. However, it had to be shifted back within two years, as there were no adequate arrangements in the new capital. Muhammad also introduced copper and brass coins as "token coins" and ordered that these coins should be considered at par with the silver and gold coins in value. This resulted in forged coins and as a result token currency was withdrawn. The Sultan's ambitions plan of invading Himachal and the devastation of his army owing to inhospitable climate was another blunder by Mohammed-bin -Tughlaq.   Administrative blunders, military failures and revolts weakened Muhammad bin Tughlaq. He died in 1351 of illness while trying to suppress revolt in Gujrat.

His cousin Feroz Tughlug who became Sultan in the year 1351 AD succeeded Muhammed-bin- Tughlaq. Feroz Tughlak did not contribute much to expand the territories of the empire, which he inherited. In 1360 he invaded Jajnagar to destroy the Jagan nath Puri temple. In 1326 AD he met with success in his expedition to Sindh, before this he had led an invasion Nagarkot with an idea to destroy the Jwalamukhi temples. The Sultan was not tolerant towards people with different religion. Feroz Tughluq also introduced reforms in the field of irrigation and also constructed buildings with architectural skill. He reformed the currency system. After him the dynasty began to disintegrate. The last Tughluq ruler Mahmud Nasir-uddin ruled from 1395-1413 AD. The invasion of Mongol ruler Timur in1398 A.D. sealed the fate of the Tughluq dynasty. Muhammad fled and Timur captured the city and destroyed many temples in north India. Thousands of people were killed and Delhi was plundered for fifteen days, Timur returned to Samarkhand carrying away a large amount of wealth with him. Muhammad Tughlaq re-occupied Delhi and ruled till 1413 A.D.

 The Saiyyid

 Then came the Saiyyid dynasty founded by Khizr Khan. The Sayyids ruled from about 1414 AD to 1450 AD. At a time when the provinces were declaring themselves independent the first task of Khizr Khan was the suppression of the revolts. Last in Saiyyid dynasty was Muhammad-bin-Farid. During his reign there was confusion and revolts. The empire came to an end in 1451 AD with his death.

 The Lodhi dynasty

Behlol Lodhi who was in service during Khizr Khan rule founded the Lodhi dynasty. Behlol Lodhi an Afghan was proclaimed the Sultan in 1451AD. After his death his son Sikandar Lodi proved to be a capable ruler who brought back the lost prestige of the Sultan. He maintained friendly relations with the neighboring states. He brought Gwalior and Bihar under his rule. He was a religious fanatic but encouraged education and trade. His military skill helped him in bringing the Afghan nobles under his control.

Sikandar Lodi was succeeded by Ibrahim Lodi who is said to have been the last great ruler of the Lodi dynasty. Ibrahim Lodi came to the throne in 1517 AD. He conquered Gwalior, and came into conflict with Rana Sanga the ruler of Mewar who defeated him twice. His relations with the Afghan nobles became worse and this led to several conflicts with him. The discontented Afghan chiefs invited Babur the ruler of Kabul to India. Babur with an army of 10,000 defeated Ibrahim Lodi who had an army of 100,000 in the first battle of Panipat in 1526. Ibrahim Lodhi was killed in a fierce fight. With this defeat the Delhi Sultanate was laid to rest. The History of India added a new outlook with the coming of Babur. This was the beginning of the Mughal dynasty in Indian History

Mughal dynasty (1526 - 1707 A.D):

Mughal dynasty started with Babur ascending the throne of Agra in 1526 A.D. In the beginning his rule in India Babur had to face the problems of the Rajputs and the Afghan chiefs. He battled Rana Sanga of Mewar in 1527 A.D. in the battle of Kanwah. Rana lost the battle. The defeat of Rana Sanga shook the power of the Rajputs. Babur's Empire extended from Bhera and Lahore to Bahraich and Bihar and from Sialkot to Ranthambhor. Like his predecessor Muslim Sultans Babur continued with policy of plundering and destroying Hindu temples and killing people.  Babur died in 1530 AD. Humayun the eldest of his four sons succeeded him and ascended the throne of Agra in 1530. Humayun was faced with numerous difficulties. He had to reorganize his army that comprised of mixed races. He faced problems from his brothers, and nobles.

 The Afghans though defeated by Babur were not vanquished. Sher Khan the King of Bengal defeated Humayun in the battle of Chausa in 1539 A.D. In 1540 A.D., he again defeated Humayun at Kanauj, and went on to capture Delhi and Agra. Thus Sher Khan re-established the Afghans rule in Delhi. Humayun was compelled to flee from India.

Sher Shah and the Sur Dynasty 

Sher Shah’s reign barely spanned five years (1540 - 1545), but is a landmark in the history of the Sub-continent. Sher Shah was a capable military and civilian administrator. He set up reforms in various areas including those of army and revenue administration. Numerous civil works were carried out during his short reign. After the death of Sher Shah in 1545 his son Islam Shah ruled up to 1553 A.D. Then Muhammad Adil Shah came to power. Muhammad Adil was not a capable ruler. His minister Hemu became important and virtually controlled the kingdom. As a result of the onslaught by Ibrahim Shah and Sikander Shah the Sur Empire was broken up.

Return of Humayun (1555 A.D.)

In the mean time Humayun took support of Persian Shah. He managed to win over Kabul and Kandhar after a power struggle with his brother Kamran in 1949. He occupied Lahore and Dipalpur in 1555.A.D. By July 1555 Humayun reached Delhi where he spend his time in administration of his kingdom. In 1556 Humayun died in an accidental fall.

After the death of Humayun the history of India saw the rule of greatest of the Mughal rulers - Akbar the great (1556-1605). Akbar inherited the throne of the Mughal Empire at the age of 14 years after the death of Humayun. His uncle Bairam Khan advised him. In 1556 Akbar met Hemu on the battlefield of Panipat (second battle of Panipat) and defeated his large army. With the defeat of Hemu, the Mughals had established their sway over Delhi and Agra.

Akbar followed a policy of reconciliation with the Rajputs and won their support by establishing matrimonial alliances. In 1562 he married the eldest daughter of Raja Bihal mal of Jaipur. In 1584 his son Salim was married to the daughter of Raja Bhagwan Das. In 1567 he marched against Chittor. In 1568 the Mughals captured Chittor. By 1569 Ranthambhor and Kalinjar was also captured.

He met the Rajput ruler Maharana Pratap in the battle of Haldighati in 1576. After a fierce battle Akbar defeated Maharana Pratap. Akbar conquered Bengal, Gujrat, Kashmir, Kabul by 1589 A.D. and Sind and Kandhar  by 1595 A.D. Moving towards the Deccan Akbar attacked Ahmednagar. Chand Bibi bravely defended this but she could not hold on longer and Ahmednagar fell in 1596.

It is said that Akbar followed generally a tolerant policy towards Hindus. But Encyclopaedia Britannica mentions that Mughal emperor Akbar 'ordered the massacre of about 30,000 captured Rajput Hindus on February  24, 1568 AD, after the battle for Chittod, a number confirmed by Abul Fazl,  Akbar's court historian. 

He tried to establish a national religion called Din-i-illahi that was to be pleasing both the Hindus and Muslims. This was politically motivated and Din-i-illahi failed miserably. Akbar introduced the Mansabdari system that systematized the civil and military administration. He was also a patron of art and literature and Nav Ratans (Nine Gems) in his court are famous. They included great singer Tansen, poet Mulla-do- pyaja, and Ministers like Birbal and Todarmal. Akbar was not only a conqueror by an able administrator and was the greatest of the Mughal emperors.

 His son Muhammad Salim also called Jahangir succeeded Akbar. In 1605 Akbar proclaimed him as the ruler. Salim was deeply influenced by the charms of his queen Nur Jahan whom he married 1611 and left the task of administration entirely on her at times. Jahangir won several wars but could not reach the glory of his father Akbar.

Jahangir died in 1627 A.D and was succeed by Shah Jahan was ruled from 1627 to 1658 A.D. Shahjhan's period is best known for construction of Taj Mahal and other great monuments. His love for his queen Mumtaz Mahal was immense. After her death in 1631, he built the Taj Mahal in memory of her. In the years 1631-32 he was involved in wars with the Portuguese. He shared the Kingdom of Ahmednagar with the Sultan of Bijapur in 1636. After settling the problems he faced in the Deccan he retired to Agra in 1636 where he was later imprisoned by his son and successor Aurangzeb. In 1657 a war of succession started owing to the illness of Shah Jahan between Dara, Shah Suja, Aurangzeb, and Murad. Aurangzeb being the ablest of the three sons succeeded Shah Jahan. He ruled from 1658-1707. Aurangzeb was the last great Mughal ruler who took the Mughal Empire to its greatest glory. Aurangzeb possessed an empire that extended from Ghazni to Bengal and from Kashmir to the Deccan. But he was a religious fanatic and destroyed large number of temples and forcefully converted thousands of Hindus to Islam giving them a choice between Islam and death.

The imposition of Jizya on the Hindus in 1679, which was an anti Hindu policy, resulted in the rise of the Rajput in a revolt in 1769. This struggle continued till 1681 when Aurangzeb made peace with the Rajputs. The other sect affected by the Anti-Hindu policy of Aurangzeb was the Satnamis. Aurangzeb crushed their revolt. Next was the revolt of the Jats of Mathura, which was an opposition to the policy and oppression under Aurangzeb. Though they were suppressed in the early period they carried on the struggle till the death of Aurangzeb. The revolt of the Bundela Rajputs and the Sikhs were other significant effects of Aurangzeb's anti Hindu policy. The Sikhs whose temples were destroyed were hurt. The killing of Guru Teg Bahadur their 9th guru was more hurting. They swore the destruction of the Mughals. Under the 10th Guru Govind Singh, and after his death in 1708 A.D the struggle was carried on.

Aurangzeb faced stiff resistance from the Marathas under Shivaji and remained unsuccessful in subduing the Marathas. It was in about 1600 that the Mughals established contacts witht the English ever since the visit of Sir Thomas Roe. In 1616 the English were permitted to build a factory at Masulipattam.  Aurangzeb died in 1707. Bahadur Shah I who was the eldest of the three surviving sons of Aurangzeb succeeded him. The vast Mughal Empire, which the biggest of all the empires existing then, was divided among the three sons. Bahadurr Shah I who was known, as Prince Muazzam had to face the problems from the Marathas, Rajputs and the Sikhs.  Mughal rule in Delhi continued under a number of weak rulers after death of Bahadur Shah I in 1712 A.D. and the great Mughal Empire disintegrated. The Mughal rule in Delhi while under Muhammad Shah witnessed the invasion of Nadir Shah in 1739. This invasion sealed the fate of Muhammad Shah. This was followed by the invasion of Ahmad Shah Abdali, the general of Nadir Shah.

As the Mughal Emipre broke down there was rise of great Maratha power, Sikhs and arrival of British East India Company.  Last of the titular Mughal King Bahadur Shah II took part in the revolt of 1857 against the English. After the failure of this revolt he was imprisoned and deported to Rangoon where he died in 1862. This marked the end of the Mughal dynasty.

Medieval History in South of India

Vijaynagar Kingdom

 In order to check the progress of Islam in the south Harihar and Bukka founded an independent kingdom in the region between the river Krishna and Tungabhadra in 1336. The capital of this kingdom was at Vijayanagar on the banks of the river Tungabhadra. The kingdom was known as the Kingdom of Vijayanagar. Harihar was the first ruler of the kingdom. After his death, his brother Bukka succeeded. He died in 1379 and was succeeded by his son Harihar II.

Harihar II was given the title of Maharajadhiraja. During his reign, the whole of Southern Deccan came under the authority of Vijayanagar. This also included present Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala states. Harihar II died in 1404 A.D. This dynasty was known as Sangama dynasty. The dynasty ruled for about 150 years till 1486, when one of their chiefs Narasimha Saluva deposed the last ruler of Sangama dynasty and seized the throne.

The ruler of Saluva dynasty did not last long. His two sons succeeded Narasimha Saluva. During the reign of the second son Immadi Narasimha in 1505 A.D, the Taluva chief Vira Narasimha usurped the throne and thus laid the foundation of the Taluva dynasty.

Krishnadeva Raya (1509-1529): Vira Narasimha ruled for four years and in 1509 A.D. was succeeded by his younger brother Krishnadeva Raya. The Vijayanagar kingdom reached the pinnacle of its glory during the reign of Krishnadeva Raya. He was successful in all the wars he waged. He defeated the king of Orissa and annexed Vijaywada and Rajmahendri. He defeated the Sultan of Bijapur in 1512 and took the possession of the Raichur Doab. The Vijayanagar kingdom extended from Cuttak in east to Goa in the west and from the Raichur Doab in the north to the Indian Ocean in the south.

Krishnadeva Raya encouraged trade with the western countries. He was not only a great warrior, but was also a playwright and a great patron of learning. Telugu literature flourished under him. Painting, sculpture, dance and music were greatly encouraged by him and his successors. He endeared himself to the people by his personal charm, kindness, and an ideal administration.

The decline of the Vijayanagar kingdom began with the death of Krishnadeva Raya in 1529. The kingdom came to an end in 1565, when Ramrai was defeated at Talikota by the joint efforts of Adilshahi, Nizamshahi, Qutubshahi and Baridshahi. After this, the kingdom broke into small states.

 Muslim rulers in Deccan - South India

The Nizam Shahi Dynasty of Ahmadnagar

Nizam-ul-Mulk Bahri founded the Nizam Shahi dynasty. In 1490 AD his son Malik Ahmad defeated the army of Mahmud Bahmani and established himself independent. He assumed the title of Ahmad Nizam Shah and after him the dynasty was named Nizam Shahi dynasty. The next ruler was Burhan Nizam Shah was the next ruler who ruled for forty-five years. The state was later annexed in Mughal Empire in 1637 during the reign of Shah Jahan.

The Adil Shahi Shahi Dynasty of Bijapur

Yusuf Adil Khan, the governor of Bijapur who declared his independence in 1489, founded the Adil Shahi dynasty. Ismail Shah succeeded Adil shah but being a minor he was helped by Kamal Khan. He lost his life in a conspiracy and was succeeded by Ibrahim Adil Shah and ruled till 1557 AD. Ali Adil Shah succeeded Ibrahim Adil Shah. Following a policy of alliance he married Chand Bibi the daughter of Hussain NIzam Shah of Ahamadnagar. In the year 1564 - 1565 AD the four sultans allied at Talikota against the Vijayanagar Empire and defeated and annexed it. Adil shah was killed in 1579 AD. The throne was passed on to Ibrahim Adil Shah II who was a minor. His mother Chand Bibi looked after him while ministers ruled the kingdom. In 1595 AD the Ahmadnagar monarch was killed in a fight between Bijapur and Ahmednagar. In 1680 AD Aurangzeb annexed Bijapur. 

The Qutab Shahi Shahi Dynasty of Golkanda

The Qutab Shahi dynasty was a part of the Bahmani Empire that was called Golkonda. Sultan Quli Qutab Shah who was formerly the governor of the eastern province declared his independence in 1518 AD. And started the The Qutab Shahi dynasty. Qutab Shah met with his death in 1543 AD and his son Jamshed ruled till 1550 AD. The throne was held by Ibrahim till 1580 AD and later his son Muhammad Quli ruled till 1611 AD. Aurangzeb finally annexed the state in 1687 AD.

Bahamani Kingdom of Deccan

During the region of Muhammad-bin-Tughluq a series of revolts between the periods 1343 - 1351 AD helped in formation of numerous independent provinces. An officer of the Delhi Sultan named Hassan assumed the title of Bahman Shah and after occupation of Daulatbad in the Deccan proclaimed independence. He was also known as Alauddin I, the founder of the Bahmani dynasty.  Alauddin I was succeeded by Muhammad Shah I. He waged wars against the Hindu rulers of Vijayanagar and Warangal. With his policy of subjugation he subdued countless number of rival Hindu rulers, and accumulated vast treasures. A number of successful Sultans followed him till 1482 A.D. Shihab-ud-din Mahmud succeeded to the throne in 1482 AD and ruled till 1518 AD. During his reign the provincial governors declared their independence and Bahmani Kingdom started to break up. Kalim-ullah Shah  (1526 - 1538 AD) was the last ruler of Bahamani Kingdom.  

List of Bahmani Kingdom Rulers  

 Gulbarga as capital -75 years

1. Ala-ud-din Hasan Bahman Shah 1347 - 1358 AD

2. Muhammad I 1358 - 1375 AD

3. Ala-ud-din Mujahid Shah 1375 - 1378 AD

4. Daud Shah I 1378 - 1378 AD

5. Muhammad II 1378 - 1397 AD

6. Ghiyas-ud-din Tahmatan Shah 1397 - 1397 AD

7. Shams-ud-din Daud Shah II 1397 - 1397 AD

8. Taj-ud-din Firoz Shah 1397 - 1422 AD

Bidar as capital -116 years

1. Shihab-ud-din Ahmad Shah I 1422 - 1436 AD

2. Ala-ud-din Ahmad Shah II 1436 - 1458 AD

3. Ala-ud-din Humayun Shah 1458 - 1461 AD

4. Nizam-ud-din Ahmad Shah III 1461 - 1463 AD

5. Shams-ud-din Muhammad Shah III 1463 - 1482 AD

6. Shihab-ud-din Mahmud 1482 - 1518 AD

7. Ahmad Shah IV 1518 - 1520 AD

8. Ala-ud-din Shah 1520 - 1523 AD

9. Wai-ullah Shah 1523 - 1526 AD

10. Kalim-ullah Shah 1526 - 1538 AD

The Imad Shahi Dynasty of Berar

This consisted of the northern part of the Bahamani Kingdom. The Imad Shahi Dynasty of Berar lasted for four generations till 1574 AD.

The Barid Shahi Dynasty of Bidar

The Barid Shahi Sultans governed the Barid Shahi dynasty. Qasim Barid the minister of Mahmud Shah Bahamani established it in 1492 AD. This dynasty lasted till 1619 AD when Bijapur annexed it.

Policy of Muslim rulers in India - The general policy of most of the rulers during the 700 years of Muslim occupation of India was to systematically replace the fabric of Hindu society and culture with a Muslim culture. They tried to destroy Indian religions language, places of knowledge (universities e.g Nalanda were totally destroyed by Muslims). They destroyed and desecrated places of thousands of temples including Somnath, Mathura, Benaras, Ayodhaya, Kannauj, Thaneswar and in other places. There was wholesale slaughter of the monks and priests and innocent Hindus with the aim to wipe out the intellectual bedrock of the people they overran.

The Muslims could not subjugate India with ease and were never able to rule it entirely. There was a valiant and ceaseless struggle for independence by Hindus to deliver India from Muslim tyranny. The Rajputs, Jats, Marathas and Sikhs led this struggle in North India. In the South this struggle was embodied in the Vijayanagar Empire. This struggle culminated when the Marathas ended the Muslim domination of India.

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