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Indian History

British Period - Colonial Rule 1919-1947

Jalianwala Bagh Massacre 1919

Swaraj Party

Non-Cooperation Movement

Revolutionary Movement in India during 1920s and 1930s

Satyagraha Movement of Gandhi 

Round Table Conferences and Gandhi Irwin Pact

Continuing revolutionary struggle and role of women revolutionaries

Government of India Act 1935 and formation of Provincial Legislative Government

Rise of Subhash Chandra Bose in Indian freedom movement

British Involvement in World War II and Quit India Movement

Role of Indian National Army (INA)

Events leading to partition and independence of India

Independent India

  Jalianwala Bagh Massacre 1919

British responded to the Indian help in World War I by enacting in 1919, The Rowlatt Act. This allowed the government to imprison anyone without a trial or a conviction. There were widespread protests to this law. On April 13, 1919, thousands of people gathered peacefully in protest against this law in Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar Punjab. British troops marched to the park accompanied by an armored vehicle on which machine guns were mounted. The vehicle was unable to enter the park compound due to the narrow entrance. The troops were under the command of General Reginald Edward Harry Dyer. He ordered his men to open fire on the peaceful gathering. Since there was no other exit but the one already manned by the troops, people desperately tried to exit the park by trying to climb the walls of the park. Some people also jumped into a well to escape the bullets. More than a thousands people including women and children were massacred. Sir Michael O’Dwyer, who was The Governor of the Punjab region, supported the massacre. The event was condemned worldwide and General Dyer was summoned to London the Hunter Commission in 1920, found him guilty. However, the British Parliament cleared his name and even praised his ruthlessness. Many Britons raised a fund in his honor.

‘Jalianwala Bagh Massacre’ catalyzed the militant movement against British rule and paved the way for Gandhi’s Non-Cooperation Movement against the British in 1920. After the end of World War I Turkish Khalifa was removed, which led to a worldwide protest by Muslims. Under the leadership of the Ali Brothers, Maulana Muhammad Ali and Maulana Shaukat Ali, the Muslims of South Asia launched the historic Khilafat Movement. Gandhi linked the issue of Swaraj with the Khilafat issue to bring Hindus and Muslim together in one movement. The Civil Disobedience or Non-cooperation movement was started. The ensuing movement was the first countrywide popular movement. It began with returning of honorary titles given by the British and then continued to a boycott of the legislatures, elections and government works. Foreign clothes were burned and Khadi (home woven cloth) became a symbol of freedom. By the end of 1921, all of the important leaders, except Gandhi were in jail. In February 1922, at Chaurichaura, Uttar Pradesh, violence erupted and Gandhi called off the movement. He was then arrested and the movement ended.

Deshbandhu Chitt Ranjan Das, along with Motilal Nehru, founded the Swaraj Party in 1923 for maintaining of continued participation in legislative councils. The party was soon recognized as the parliamentary wing of the Congress. In Bengal many of the candidates fielded by the Swaraj Party were elected to office. The Governor invited C.R. Das to form a government but he declined. The party came to be a powerful opposition in the Bengal Legislative Council and inflicted defeats on three ministries. The Calcutta Municipal Act of 1923 was a major landmark in the history of local self-government in India. The Swarajists were elected to the Calcutta Corporation in a majority in 1924. Deshbandhu was elected mayor and Subash Chandra Bose was appointed Chief Executive Officer. The leaders of Swaraj Party began to advocate for dominion status to India. Many of the elected deputies soon forgot about obstruction and began cooperating with the government (tariff autonomy bill passed, 1923). In 1924 Gandhi was released from prison due to poor health and was elected President of the Indian National Congress. 1925 saw the first woman becoming the president of Indian National Congress when Sarojini Naidu was elected President for the Kanpur session.

Revolutionary Movement in India during 1920s and 1930s

The revolutionaries in northern India organized under the leadership of the old veterans, Ramprasad Bismil, Jogesh Chatterjee, Chandrashekhar Azad and Sachindranath Sanyal whose ‘Bandi Jiwani’ served as a textbook to the revolutionary movement. They met in Kanpur in October 1924 and founded the Hindustan Republican Association (HRA) to organize armed revolution to overthrow colonial rule and establish in its place a Federal Republic of the United States of India.

Gopinath Saha in January 1924 tried to assassinate Charles Tegart, the hated Police Commissioner of Calcutta. By an error, another Englishman named Day was killed. Gopinath Saha was arrested and executed despite large-scale protests. The most important action of the HRA was the Kakori train episode. On 9 August. 1925, ten men up the 8-Down train at Kakori, an obscure village near Lucknow, looted its official railway treasury. The Government reaction was quick and hard. It arrested a large number of young men and tried them in the Kakori case, Ashfaqullah Khan, Ramprasad Bismil, Roshan Singh, Rajendra Lahiri were hanged, four others were sent to the Andaman for life and seventeen others were sentenced to long terms of imprisonment. Chandrashekhar Azad remained at large. In 1927, the Simon Commission was appointed by the British Government to suggest political reforms in India. Sir John Simon and six other members of the commission were British. At the Congress meeting in Madras in 1927, it was decided to boycott the commission. Formation of Simon Commission led to large-scale protests all over India.

The Kakori case was a major setback to the revolutionaries of northern India. But soon young men such as Bejoy Kumar Sinha, Shiv Varma and Jaidev Kapur in U.P., Bhagat Singh, Bhagwati Charan Vohra and Sukhdev in Punjab set out to reorganize the HRA under the overall leadership of Chandrashekhar Azad. Finally nearly all the major young revolutionaries of northern India met a Ferozeshah Kotla Ground at Delhi on 9 and 10 September 1928, created a new collective leadership adopted socialism as their official goal and changed the name of the party to the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HRSA).

Lala Lajpat Rai's died, as the result of a brutal lathi-charge when he was leading an anti-Simon Commission demonstration at Lahore on 30 October 1928. The romantic youthful leadership of the HSRA saw the death of this great Punjabi leader, popularly known as Sher-e-Punjab, as a direct challenge. And so, on 17 December 1928, Bhagat Singh, Azad and Rajguru assassinated, at Lahore, Saunders, a police official involved in deadly lathi-charge on Lala Lajpat Rai.

Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt threw a bomb in the Central Legislative Assembly on 8 April 1929 protesting against the passage of the Public Safety Bill and the Trade Disputes Bill that would reduce the civil liberties of citizens. The aim was not to kill, for the bombs were relatively harmless.The leaflet they threw into the Assembly hall said “If the deaf are to hear, the sound has to be very loud’. The objective was to get arrested and to use trial court as a forum for propaganda so that people would become familiar with their movement and ideology. Bhagat Singh and B.K. Dutt were tried in the Assembly Bomb Case.

Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev, Rajguru and many other revolutionaries were tried in a series of conspiracy cases. During the trial they said - “When we dropped the bomb, it was not our intention to kill anybody. We have bombed the British Government. The British must quit India and make her free." Their fearless and defiant attitude in the courts and their slogans 'Inquilab Zindabad,' songs such as 'Sarfaroshi ki tamanna ab hamare dil mein hain' and 'Mera rang de basanti chola' became very popular all over India.
Bhagat Singh, Rajguru & Sukhdev became symbols for Indian struggle against British rule. They became an inspiration for many youths who wanted to see India independent. Sukhdev and Rajguru were executed on 23rd March 1931 and Bhagat Singh on 24th March 1931. Millions of people in India wept and refused to eat food, attend schools, or carry on their daily work, when they heard of their hanging.

Chandrashekhar Azad had escaped from getting arrested and he continued to organize the revolutionary youths. But on 27th February 1931 Azad was betrayed by an informer and was encircled by a huge posse of British troops in the Alfred Park, Allahabad. He was asked to surrender but Azad refused. For several hours he alone fought against hundreds of policemen. He kept on fighting till the last bullet. Finding no other alternative, except surrender, Azad shot himself.

A large number of revolutionaries were convicted in the Lahore conspiracy Case and other similar cases and sentenced to long terms of imprisonment many of them were sent to the Andamans. The revolutionary under-trials went on hunger strike protesting against the horrible conditions in jails. They demanded that they be treated as political prisoners and not as criminals. On 13th September, after 64 days of an epic hunger strike Jatin Das, the iron willed young man from Bengal died. The entire nation rallied behind the hunger strikers. Thousands came to pay homage at every station passed by the train carrying his body from Lahore to Calcutta. At Calcutta, a two-mile-long procession of more than half a million people carried his coffin to the cremation ground.

Satyagraha Movement of Gandhi and rise of Sardar Patel and Jawaharlal Nehru

 Vallabhbhai Patel, qualified as a barrister in 1913 and returned to India to a lucrative practice in Ahmedabad. But soon following Gandhi’s footsteps, Vallabhbhai took to spinning the charkha, boycotted foreign goods and clothes and burned his foreign possessions on public bonfires. He even discarded the western dresses he once so coveted. The relationship between Gandhiji and Vallabhbhai was concretely defined when Gandhiji was elected the President of the Gujarat Sabha and Vallabhbhai the Secretary, in 1917. He participated in the Nagpur flag satyagraha from May to August in 1923 in protest against the stopping of a procession which carried the national flag. In 1928, Vallabhbhai once again came to the rescue of the farmers, this time it was in Bardoli, which was then a part of Surat district. The Government increased the tax on the land. Those who were not able to pay the high taxes, their lands were confiscated. Vallabhbhai urged the farmers not to pay, declaring the hike unjust. He prepared the farmers for satyagraha. The Satyagraha continued for six months. Finally the government agreed to hold an inquiry into the justification of the tax hike, released the satyagrahis and returned all confiscated items back to the farmers. So pleased was Gandhiji with Vallabhbhai's effort that he gave him the title of "Sardar" or leader.

In 1929 Lord Irwin promises Dominion Status for India. This year also saw the rise of Jawaharlal Nehru, who was destined to become the first prime minister of free India. Jawaharlal Nehru was son of congress leader Motilal Nehru. Jawaharlal was educated in Britain from where he graduated as a barrister. After the Jalianwala Bagh massacre in 1919, he joined the freedom struggle. In the Lahore session of Congress in 1929, under President Jawaharlal Nehru, the resolution of "Poorna Swaraj", Complete Independence, was adopted. On December 21, 1929, the Trianga (tricolor) flag was unfurled. On January 26, 1930, the first Independence Day was celebrated. The Civil disobedience movement was started as well as the movement to no longer submit to British Rule. Nehru spent most of the period from 1930 to 1936 in jail for conducting civil disobedience campaigns.

On March 12, 1930, Gandhi marched from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi, to protest against ‘state monopoly on salt’ often called the Dandi march. The march was 375 km and took 26 days. As a result of this march, all of India joined the campaign to boycott foreign goods and refused to pay taxes. Sardar Patel left for Dandi to prepare for Gandhiji's Salt satyagraha. He went to villages to organize for the food and lodging of the marchers. In every village he went, he made stirring speeches, rousing the people to join the march to Dandi. The Government swooped down and arrested him while he was in the village of Ras. This was Sardar Patel's first prison sentence.

Khan Abdul Ghafar Khan started the Khudai Kidmatgar movement in the NorthWest of India. The government imprisoned 90,000 people that were participating in the movement in the first year.

Round Table Conferences and Gandhi Irwin Pact

First Round Table Conferences was held in November 1930 was attended by eighty-nine delegates from different religious, political groups and princely states. The Indian National Congress, then engaged in civil disobedience, was not represented. Lacking representation from the Congress and preoccupied with problems of federation, the first conference adjourned in January 1931, without having made appreciable progress on the issue of communal representation. Sardar Patel, was released after the Gandhi-Irwin pact of March 1931. Gandhi signed the Pact on behalf of the Congress and by Lord Irwin on behalf of the Government. The terms of the agreement included the immediate release of all political prisoners not convicted for violence, the remission of all fines not yet collected, the return of confiscated lands not yet sold to third parties, and lenient treatment for those government employees who had resigned. British Government also conceded the right to make salt for consumption to villages long the coast, as also the right to peaceful and non-aggressive picketing. That year Sardar Patel presided over the Congress session in Karachi.

The second round table conference opened in London on September 7, 1931. Two committees were formed during the conference - committees on federal structure and minorities. Gandhi was a member of both and he claimed that he represented all India and dismissed other Indian delegates as non-representative because they did not belong to the Congress. There was serious disagreement on communal representation issue between Congress and other minority groups. Gandhi returned from the conference and continued the civil disobedience movement and was arrested again. The third round table conference began on November 17, 1932. It was short and unimportant. The Congress, and the Labor opposition in the British Parliament were both absent. Reports of the various committees were scrutinized. The conference ended on December 25, 1932.

Continuing revolutionary struggle and role of women revolutionaries Most historians write about the dominant role of Gandhi and Congress during the Indian freedom movement of 1930s but only a few mention the revolutionary movement that continued in different parts of India. Some of these revolutionary leaders worked in congress but later got disillusioned by Gandhi’s non-violent satyagraha. Among the new 'Revolutionary Groups', the most active and famous was the Chittagong group led by Surya Sen. He actively participated in the non-cooperation movement and was popularly known as ‘Masterda’. Arrested and imprisoned for two years, from 1926 to 1928, for revolutionary activities, he continued to work in the Congress. On 18th April 1930, a group of fivety-six revolutionaries under the leader ship of Surya Sen, Ganesh Ghosh and Loknath Baul captured two police armories in Chittagong. They hoisted the National Flag among shouts of Bande Mataram and Inquilab Zindabad and proclaimed Provisional Revolutionary Government. It was on the Jalalabad Hill that over a thousand British government troops surrounded them on the afternoon of 22 April. After a fierce fight, in which over eighty British troops and twelve revolutionaries died, Surya Sen decided to disperse to the neighbouring village there they formed into small groups and conducted raids on Government personnel and property. They continued their fight against British army for over 3 years. Surya Sen was finally arrested on 16 February 1933, tried and hanged on 12th January 1934.

Large-scale participation of young women in freedom struggle under Surya Sen's leadership characterized this phase of revolutionary movement. These women provided shelters, acted as messengers and fought guns in hand. Preetilata Waddekar died while conducting a raid, while Kalpana Dutt was arrested and tried along with Surya Sen and given a life sentence. In December 1931, two schoolgirls of Kummilla in Bengal, Shanti Ghosh and Suneeti Chaudhary, shot dead the district magistrates. In December 1932, Beena Das fired point blank at the Governor while receiving her degree at the convocation. In Nagaland, Rani Gaidilita, a 13-year girl raised a flag against the British and was put into prison for life in 1932.

Government of India Act 1935 and formation of Provincial Legislative Government

In 1935, the Government of India Act was passed in the British Parliament. This created an All-Indian Federation based on provincial autonomy. The Congress swept 7 out of 11 of the provinces in July 1937. The Muslim League which claimed to represent Indian Muslims, secured less then a quarter of the seats reserved for Muslims. While, political prisoners were released and civil liberties promoted, the limitations on the Act of 1935 few real achievements were made. The Muslim League fared poorly in the elections. Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the permanent president of the Muslim League, began rumors that the Muslim minority was in danger under the Hindu majority and promoted a two separate nation plan. In 1940, the Muslim League passed a resolution demanding Pakistan after as a separate country after Independence.

Rise of Subhash Chandra Bose in Indian freedom movement

Subhash Chandra Bose was born in 1897. He was selected for Indian civil services but resigned from it and returned to India in 1921. He joined Swarjya Party of C.R. Das in Gaya Congress in 1922. In 1930 he was elected Mayor of Calcutta and became a prominent leader of Indian freedom movement. During 1933-36 Subhash Bose met several prominent European leaders and tried to persuade them to help India in its freedom struggle against British colonialism. Many people questioned Gandhi’s leadership. Subhash Chandra Bose and Vithalbhai Patel (brother of Sardar Patel) in a strong statement had said in 1933 that 'Mr. Gandhi as a political leader has failed' and called for 'a radical reorganization of the Congress on a new principle with a new method, for which a new leader is essential.' Subhash returned to India in 1936 and was arrested. In 1938 he was elected as the President of Indian Congress and made the historic speech in Haripura convention. Subhash brought new ideas to the Congress and wanted a quick move towards launching a freedom struggle. Gandhi and Nehru were in favor of helping British during World War II and against any serious movement that could harm British War efforts. Subhash Bose strongly opposed this idea. Sardar Patel, Rajendra Prasad, J.B. Kripalani, Jawaharlal Nehru and Gandhi supported Pattabhi Sitaramayya as a candidate for the post of Congress president against Subhash in 1939. Subhas Bose was elected on 29th January by 1580 votes against 1377. Gandhi declared that 'Pattabhi's defeat is my defeat'. Not wanting to embarrass these leaders and due to strong policy differences with Gandhi and Nehru, Subhash resigned and formed the new organization Forward Block. Subhash later became President of Indian National Army, which played a crucial role during last part of Indian freedom movement.

British Involvement in World War II and Quit India Movement

On September 1st., 1939, German troops invaded Poland. Britain and France declared war against Germany on September 3rd 1939. Beginning of World War II hastened the end of British rule in India. During World War II, Congress stated that if it wanted India's cooperation, it must give India the right of self-determination. The British refused and in 1939 Congress led provincial ministries resigned. Role of Gandhi during this period was again controversial. In October 1940, Gandhi called for limited Satyagraha so the movement did not seriously harm the British war effort. Many of his closest colleagues and the rank and file in the Indian National Congress could not bring themselves to accept the feasibility of defending the country against aggression without resort to arms. During the war whenever there was a possibility of a rapprochement between the Congress and the Government for a united war effort, Gandhi stepped aside.

Udham Singh had witnessed his brother being killed in the Jalianwala massacre as a child. Twenty-one years later he took the revenge for that massacre by killing Sir Michael O'Dwyer on 13th March 1940. Sir Michael O'Dwyer was the governor of Punjab at the time of Jalianwala Bagh massacre and had strongly supported the massacre. Udham Singh was captured and executed On July 31, 1940.

In 1942, Stafford Cripps lead the Cripps Mission, promised Dominion Status with the right of secession but refused to allow immediate transfer of power. The Indian leaders refused to accept promises. Under tremendous pressure from his colleagues in Congress Gandhi agreed for a mass independent movement. The Quit India resolution was passed in 1942, Bombay session of Congress. Gandhi stressed, "We shall either free India or die in the attempt. We shall not live to see the perpetuation of our slavery". This is famously known as "Do or Die". This was declared illegal by British government and all of the prominent leaders were arrested. There were revolts all around India with the slogan of "British Quit India".

Role of Indian National Army (INA)

Mohan Singh, an Indian officer of the British Indian Army who did not join the retreating British army in Malaya first conceived the idea of the Indian National Army and asked for Japanese help. Indian prisoners of war were handed over by the Japanese to Mohan Singh who then tried to recruit them into an Indian National Army. On 1 September 1942, the first division of the INA was formed with 16,300 men. But later due to differences with Japanese Mohan Singh was arrested. Accompanied by Rashbehari Bose, Netaji arrived at Singapore from Tokyo on 27 June. He was given a tumultuous welcome by the resident Indians and was profusely 'garlanded' wherever he went. His speeches kept the listeners spellbound. By now, a legend had grown around him, and its magic infected his audiences. He went to Tokyo and Prime Minister Tojo declared that Japan had no territorial designs on India. The Provisional Government of Free India was formed on 21 October 1943. INA was now known as Azad Hind Fauz (Free India Army) It was reorganized with the creation of a second INA division and even a women’s regiment known as Rani Jhansi regiment was created. Subhash Chandra Bose was popularly called ‘Netaji’ by his followers. His call of ‘ Tum mujhe Khun dou mai tumhe Azadi dunga’(I promise you freedom, if you are ready to spill your blood) encouraged thousands youths to join the freedom movement.

The Provisional Government of free India formed under ‘Netaji’ declared war on Britain. In March - April 1944 INA set its foot inside India and captured large parts of Manipur. On April 6th 1944 Kohima, a major city was captured. Indian tricolor (flag) was raised inside free India. But soon the balance of power in World War II shifted in favor of British and allied forces. With defeat of Japan and German forces the INA was forced to retreat from Kohima. Thousands of INA soldiers died fighting British and many were captured. Despite the defeat Subhas Chandra Bose and his INA became household names throughout the country as the British prosecuted the returning soldiers. Subhash Chandra Bose escaped to Japan and some reports say he died in an air-crash while others say he survived the air-crash. His ultimate fate remains unknown till date.

Events leading to partition and independence of India

Gandhi- Jinnah talks

First partition of Bengal in 1905 had sowed the seeds of division of India. Many Muslim leaders had started entertaining the idea of a separate Muslim dominated country. Gandhi’s initial stand was that India should not be partitioned into two nations after Independence. Muhammad Ali Jinnah was the leader of Muslim League, a self-proclaimed champion of Muslim cause. Although Muslim League never had popular support amongst Indian Muslims, British always supported Muslim League. The Muslim League adopted the Pakistan demand in its Lahore resolution in 1940. The demand stated that the geographically contiguous regions of India where the Muslims are a majority like the North West and the Eastern side of India should be constituted as independent states.

On September 19, 1944, Gandhi-Jinnah talks began in Bombay over partition of India and creation of Pakistan. Gandhi insisted that he came in his personal capacity and was not representing Hindus or Congress. During the talks Jinaah insisted on the need for a separate Muslim state (Pakistan) while Gandhi tried to impress that India needs to remain a united one country. Talks ended on September 24, 1944 without any conclusion.

On the 21st of February 1946, mutiny broke out on board the Royal Indian Navy. Mutiny in Royal Indian Navy was quickly controlled. Mutiny in Royal Indian Navy only highlighted the amount of discontent amongst the Indian troops who were serving British Raj. As a result of the Indian National Army’s exploits in World War II, British had already started doubting the loyalty of the British Indian soldiers who formed the bulk of troops in India. Afraid of further revolts in armed forces British planned to quickly hand over power to Indian political establishment. Events like INA’s capture of Kohima in World War II and Indian Navy mutiny were probably not significant militarily but were a psychological blow to the confidence of British government, which hastened Indian Independence.

Cabinet Mission plan (1946) - To end the dead lock between Congress and Muslim League on the issue of creation of Pakistan, British Government sent a group of ministers. The mission consisted of Lord Pethic Lawrence, the Secretary of State for India, Sir Stafford Cripps, President of the Board of Trade, and A. V. Alexander, the First Lord of the Admiralty.

The main points of the plan were:

1. There would be a union of India comprising both British India and the Indian States that would deal with foreign affairs, defense and communications. The union would have an Executive and a Legislature.

2. All residuary powers would belong to the provinces.

3. All provinces would be divided into three sections. Provinces could opt out of any group after the first general elections.

4. There would also be an interim government having the support of the major political parties.

Both Congress and Muslim League agreed to the Cabinet mission plan. But Jawaharlal Nehru made an astonishing statement while addressing a press conference on July 10. He said that the Congress had agreed to join the constituent assembly, but it would be free to make changes in the Cabinet Mission Plan.

Jinnah and Muslim League who were forced to accept the Cabinet Mission Plan earlier now pounced on the blunder made by Jawaharlal Nehru. Muslim League disassociated itself from the Cabinet Plan and resorted to "Direct Action" to achieve Pakistan.

Viceroy Wavell invited the Congress to join the interim government.

On 16th August 1946, mob violence and rioting erupted in Calcutta and many people died. On October 14, 1946, to reduce the increasing communal tension Lord Wavell, invited Muslim League participate in the interim Government led by Congress.

Second blunder made by Nehru was to give the post of Finance Minister to Muslim League nominee Liaquat Ali Khan who tried to win the favor of Indian Muslims by presenting a budget that favored Muslims.

On December 9, 1946 the Congress started framing the Indian Constitution. On March 22, 1947, Lord Mountbatten arrived as the last Viceroy. It was announced that power would be transferred from British to Indian hands by June 1948. Lord Mountbatten entered into a series of talks with the Congress and the Muslim League leaders. Jinnah insisted on creation of Pakistan as a separate country for Indian Muslims. Congress also agreed to the partition of India. Gandhi who had previously said that India would be partitioned over my ‘dead body’ now agreed to the partition plan. Mountbatten now prepared for the partition of the Sub-continent and announced it on June 3, 1947. The Congress and the Muslem League agreed that India would become free on August 15, 1947. The country would be partitioned under the guidance of the Red Cliff Mission.

Independent India

On 15th August 1947 India became an independent country and Pakistan was also formed. Jawaharlal Nehru took oath as the first Prime Minister of Independent India. Massive exodus of population from Islamic Pakistan to India took place. Nearly the whole Hindu population living in Pakistan’s Punjab and Sindh and East Bengal migrated to India. Large numbers of Hindus were killed in the riots in Pakistan and many others were forcibly converted to Islam. Only a few Hindus survived in Islamic republic of Pakistan. Muslims from Independent India also migrated to Pakistan and many Muslims were killed in riots that took place in India. But majority of Muslims preferred to stay in India and were given equal rights in secular India. The Muslim population of Independent India was much bigger than that of Independent Pakistan. Indian independence was scarred by the trauma and bloodshed of partition.

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